Effects and Symptoms

An injury to the head will nearly always have an impact upon the brain. The brain, through a system of millions of nerves, controls every thought, physical action and emotion. An injury to the head can therefore stop these actions and that is why a brain injury can be so wide ranging in its effect and devastating in its consequences.  Watch our Head Injury UK video to see a neurosurgeon explain the different ways in which our brains can be injured.

How Common is a Brain Injury?

Every year one million people will attend hospital with a brain injury. Fortunately in 85% of cases the injury is mild and in most of these cases with correct medical treatment will go on to make a good recovery within 6 months. If a person losses consciousness for over 6 hours the injury is classed as severe. People with severe brain injuries are likely to have complex problems and will need long term rehabilitation. Somtimes however even mild injuries can cause long lasting impairments.

Missed Diagnosis of a Brain Injury

Unfortunately it is estimated up to 75% of all brain injuries go unreported and unassessed by medical professionals. This is often because there is no loss of consciousness at the time of the injury and symptoms do not become apparent until many days, weeks or months after the accident. Brain injury is frequently misdiagnosed as depression. Often depression is a consequence of a brain injury but sometimes this diagnosis can mask more serious underlying problems.

People with a head injury might experience a number of symptoms that might be overlooked. People with a brain injury often do not have insight into their own problems. They will not be themselves. If you or someone you know has suffered with a traumatic head injury and develops any of the symptoms listed below (however minor), immediate medical advice and possible legal advice should be sought.

The most severe types of head injury can cause extensive functional limitations such a paralysis, and severely limited mental functioning. A little further down the continuum of head injuries you will find moderate head injuries. Moderate head injuries are characterized by corresponding degrees of functional limitations mostly in the form of diminished mental skills. Then on the other end of the continuum you will find what is called concussion, mild or minor head injuries. Like the moderate head injuries, mild head injury can cause impairments in mental functioning. The irony of mild head injuries is that often, such injuries do not even require a hospital stay, yet they result in changes so profound that lives are forever changed. The term mild head injury belies the true nature of the resultant impairments.

Physical impairments

  • Deafness
  • Balance and language problems
  • Visual loss
  • Sensory loss to limbs
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Epilepsy


  • Anxiety or depression

Cognitive impairments

  • Thinking
  • Understanding
  • Reasoning
  • Carrying through a thought process
  • No insight into difficulties
  • Problems with concentration
  • Memory loss
  • Poor attention
  • Slow learning

Behavioural problems

  • Mood changes
  • Aggression or violence
  • Anger
  • Social inhibition
  • Tiredness
  • Poor motivation
  • Inappropriate responses or lack of inhibition

The effects of a brain injury can vary from minor to very serious of even fatal. Brain injuries can cause hidden disabilities that can change the personality, thinking and memory of the patient.  Watch our Head Injury UK video to hear a neurosurgeon explain the two broad guidelines doctors use to asses the severity of a brain injury.

Nearly every person who suffers a brain injury will experience a period of confusion and disorientation. They may not be able to remember the incident and may seem confused. This is defined as Post-Traumatic Amnesia (PTA). The length of time the PTA lasts for together with the length of time the patient was unconscious for is used to define how serious the brain injury is.

Type of Brain InjuryTime unconsciousTime in PTA
Minor brain injuryless than 15 minutesless than 1 hour
Moderate brain injuryBetween 15 minutes and 6 hoursBetween 1 hour and 24 hours
Severe brain injuryBetween 6 hours and 48 hoursBetween 1 day and 7 days
Very severe brain injuryOver 48 hoursOver 7 days

The severity of the brain injury will determine the effects of it. With relatively minor head injuries the only symptom may be epilepsy. For more serious brain injury this may cause a coma or epilepsy.

See our section on the Consequences of a Brain Injury for more information.

To contact a member of the Head Injury team please call us on: 0800 073 0988 or Email: info@headinjuryuk.com

Head Injury UK: Free Initial Consultation

If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury it is vital you receive specialist legal advice.

Contact us for your free initial consultation.

What our clients say

We know that we have been extremely fortunate to have had such a consummate PI lawyer in Andy acting on our behalf but we have also been blessed by having had his support, trust, friendship and loyalty throughout. We cannot ever thank him enough.

The compensation Nicola has received has helped her move from a tiny council flat into a massive bungalow which has been specifically adapted. It has enabled her to have a better life.

If it was not for the help of my solicitor I don't know where I would have been today. He provided a great deal of emotional support and secured compensation at various stages from the insurance company to fund my treatment and allow me to live. He was there from start to finish.

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